Organizations and Systems Development:
Organizational structure represents thr transformation mechanism of the business policy and procedures and reflects the interaction between different departments and levels of decision-making and its line of flow of information. Because the organizational structure evolve with the complay, it always depends and linked to changing mechanism within the company. The institutional change comes as an inevitable result of the re-formulation of strategies or objectives that the company (whether it is production or service organization) works to achieve. These also reflected on the way of implementation of these strategies and policies associated with it. We can identify some of the imeptus for system change as follows:
  1. develop or install any of integrated applications for resource planning computer-like (ERP system)
  2. Launching a project to change the corporate culture
  3. Launching of a re-engineering project to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of prcesses.
  4. Development and implementation of a new Management Information System
  5. Change or develop new coporate strategy
  6. Reconstruction of the strategic plan for the corporate
  7. Change in the market competitive position of the company.
  8. Implementation of restructure or downsizing to minimize labor
  9. Building a total quality management system TQM
  10. Adopted a new philosophies in any areas of work
  11. Introduction of a new technologie.
  12. Adopting a learning initiative for organization and empolyees.
We can add many motives and situations that could be the source of the start of the processes of change. Whatever the motive of this change and its is cause the change itself is often complex in nature, non-linear process (ie are not in one direction), withe a wide rane of effect that will impact the entire institutional structure
systemic thinking with its wide range of methodologies if properly adopted will guarantee an integrated system components from the start. Organization design is not an art any more it can be designed simulated and analyzed to predict resposes in different situations and critical risks.
Development of Organizational structure:
expresses the way management wants to achieve its business objectives, and this is done by defining elements for this structure each has its own tasks, duties, and resposibilitis, and arranged together according to a plan. In case of of hierarchy structure distribution of the duties, functions and responsibilities are created in levels and in divisions with dependency and relationships between these divisions reflect the responsibilities and authorities. The divisions and departments in the distribution levels commensurate with the dependency between these sections In the hierarchy structure the organizational structure s considered to be the map of the formal system, which is managed by the autherized manager and also reflects the flow of information and levels of authority and responsibility. But it always arises with this formal system a nonformal relationships that are not committed to much construction hierarchy or formal heirrarchy which is reflected at the end on the behavior of workers and on the work order as a whole. Therefore, we always need to use different methods and theories for the design of the organizational structure of the corporate and adjust behaviors and measure internal and external interactions. Overall, the organizational structure should perform two main functions:
  • Transfer accurate and timely information to decision makers within the orgization
  • Coordinate and regulate interactions between departments and divisions
We should understand the organizational structure regrdless of its size and type does not work in isolation from the environment in which it operates, and its overall behavior is the result of the way it was constructed and due to the internal and exrenal interactions between its elements. And this where we come to the dynamic parts of organization design, where we must take into account a number of principles, including:
  1. There is no perfect design for any one type of institution or strategies
  2. There are many factors and forces that affect the formation of the organizational structure
  3. Can not respond to each institution to internal and external influences when choosing appropriate construction
    Design of Organization Structure:
    There are six major types of organization structure and the choice between them depends on degree of influence and the interaction between the environmental factors and technology on the organizations performance. These are as follows:
    1. Functional design
    2. Place Design
    3. Product Design
    4. Matrix Design
    5. Multinational Design
    6. Network Design
    In the first level of these divisions and the simplest is the functional desifn where the structure splits according to the order of functions or the business hierarchy, and most complex is the network construction, which depends on the flow of information in achieving coherence between the organizational arrangement, which requires an effective system of information with the commitment and discipline of employees. The figure gives the relationship between the complexity of the organizational structure with the technological and environmental impacts, with the advantages and shortcomings of the division levels.
    Information and Organization Design:
    In 1980 Professor Henry Mntzerberg of MIT proposed a standardized configuration for organizational structure with number of standard components. With five basic elements (shown in the figure) he could build several structure which compose of:
    1. Strategic Apex or senior management: general manager and owners of the strategic decision
    2. Lines of action: the level of implementation of the business and output products Middle management:
    3. middle-level managers between Summit and operatin
    4. Support staff or administrative support: supports all dealing with the environment and community organization
    5. Technical construction or technical support: disciplines necessary for the standardization of business and control
    Using these five elements we can build different types of organizational structure of the simplest is the direct structural construction, which consists of the top lines of work and most complex is the top lines of work and frequently a mixture of support and technical construction team. This is reflected in the complexity of the organizational structure for planning and control mechanisms and give more attention to the environment so that qualified specialists becomes more important and the ability to influence the management. His book can be downloaded through the link Mntzerberg

    cairo cairo
    System Analysis and Design:
    System analysis and design are concerned with the investigation of an organization and the design and implementation of a computerized solution to that organization needs. To analyze a system is to identify its components (devices, people, rules and procedures) and their interrelationships in order to determine its objectives, requirements, and priorities. The analyst must find ways of representing organization as a whole system, taking into consideration any economic behavioral and technical constraints. To know more about systems analyst job from the internet click here. and visit the international institute of business analysis(IIBa).