Process Specifications:
Managers take decisions after analyzing the information they received. This information varies in types and levels of structure by the positions of manager in the organization and their levels of authority. In all cases, managers involved in two main activities to reach these decisions: the first is the process of collecting and transferring the data needed to produce these information, and the second is the process of manipulating these data to produce the needed information and presented in the proper and usable forms.
When developing a new system analyst should recognize the needs and objective of the organization and how they are related to managers and users needs. Objectives are achieved through processing functions of each division in the organization. Describing these processing functions is done through process explosion or magnification to define its subprocesses. Process modelling techniques are used to describe each subprocess to its lowest level up to the primary processes. In structured methodology Multi level Data Flow Diagram is used to describe and model these processes, and in Object Oriented Analysis class modeling and event diagram give methods and process modeling. Collections of these models give specifications for methods and processing of data and objects of the system. These specifications give explaination for the decision making logic or the maping of the organization policy that transform process input data into output.

Analysis Definition:

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Process Flow:

Transfer of data and information between system sectors and organization divisions is seen as a flow or sequence of steps or a set of processes. In each process certain tasks are performed and new information is generated. These processes may serve the production or service or technical segments of the overall objective of the entire system or organization. Also, changing the data collected along these processes and the production of new information all are done according to certain logics and rules.
In designing the information systems analyst needs to identify human and system (organization) requirements of a decision making (analysis and data). He needs to recognize the users objectives as well as the organizations objectives using a suitable approach and methodology. Top-down approach will relate all human decisions across the entire organization or system. Object-oriented, structured methodologies or use case analysis will help in explain the logics of manipulating and analysis of information in each process. Adopting a proper methodology will guide us in producing a formal process specifications. These specifications will explain the decision-making logic and formulae that will transform process input data to output. Also, it will identify exactly all processes taking place within the system and in each of its sector.


Specifications evolve as system goes throgh development stages. It starts with users requirements and system objetives which used by the to structure systems requirements specifications. this requirement specifications are used to devlop the logical solution or the logical model for the new or the modified system. This logical model is then used to produce the design specifications and then the physical specifications which used to build the new physical system.

The Process:

Process is defined as a sequence of steps or procedures or mini-tasks to transform its input (data or materials) into out output (information or products-service). Process should have a start and an end state, and takes place in timely manner. Producing a process specifications has three main goals as follows:
  1. Reduce ambiguity by describing the details of steps involved in the process.
  2. Specify input to the process based on the definition of output expected
  3. Produce process models which describe the overall system model as Data Flow Diagram, Object Model, Feedback Model

System Analysis and Design:

System analysis and design are concerned with the investigation of an organization and the design and implementation of a computerized solution to that organization needs. To analyze a system is to identify its components (devices, people, rules and procedures) and their interrelationships in order to determine its objectives, requirements, and priorities. The analyst must find ways of representing organization as a whole system, taking into consideration any economic behavioral and technical constraints. To know more about systems analyst job from the internet click here. and visit the international institute of business analysis(IIBa).