Data and Information:
Fact, event, transaction, or thing happens, exists in life, and collected by measurement or observation is an element of Data. When this data element is recorded or stored it is described by two terms name and value. A circle is defined by its name or type and its radius whether measured or not, same as a line has length or dimension.
Information is a processed data through manipulation, rearrangement, or reorganization, or grouping to give meaning to its recipient. Then, information is a collection of data in a form that provides its recipient with relevant meaning, value, or knowledge, and any collection of data that does not satisfy this objective is not information and becomes noise
Data Recording:
Recorded history on walls, tomb, and templates, was one form of data records to convey information about the lives of ancient people around the globe. Egyptian writings, which was the oldest in history, dated to 3250 BC., Gave so many description and information about their old life. Writing and recording was an important activity in the old Egyptian history, so we can find statues of the old Egyptian sitting scribed in additions to the drawings of Seshat the ancient Egyptian goddess of writing, wisdom, and knowledge who was a scribe and record keeper. These old people appreciated the importance of recording and documentation thousands of years ago. comp

Egyptian Scribed

ceshat On Temple wall
Information Transmission:
Historically information was conveyed by messaging through verbal, listening, body language and only recorded by writing, and was evaluated by its qualitative effects on people understanding and behavior. In modern history, after the invention of electric telephone in 1876, and exactly in 1948, Claude Shannon, an America scientist, was able to quantify the information. He used his information communication theory (ICT) to define the quantity of information to be transmitted in a message by number of binary digits “bits” and defined the quantity of information produced by a source, and its associated entropy as a measure of the message uncertainty.
Information & Systems Analysis:
With Shannon’s theory and the invention of computing machines it became possible to encode, compress, and store data and information in large volumes, and its full utilization needed new tools. Management Information Systems (MIS) and Data Base Management Systems (DBMS) were introduced as a powerful means to utilize this data and the produced information needed by organizations. These categories of data are created mainly from within the organization and its associated information were used by its departments and management units. In the meanwhile, the success achieved by scientific thinking in increasing productivity and efficiency of production lines, and achieving the ability to produce diversified and abundant production, the problem shifted from increasing the production to raising the ability to its marketing and winning new customers. This resulted in employing different ways of thinking and utilizing concepts of communication and societal and cultural communication, which led to increasing interactions between organizations and their environment. We can simply point to this change as a shift from the machine age to system age, and with the emergence of the internet, customers, market, and quality management become important factors in business management, and this creates new concepts for handling information and data.
Information usage is changed from the mechanistic model of organization where the use of information was mainly concentrating on the functionality of organization with its software and technology, to the Socio-Cultural system as data considered to have no value until they change how people think and how they are disposed to act, and Information is looked at as “a difference that make a difference” Gregory Bateson 1972.
With the emergence of large corporation and distributed organization associated with the globalization movement new and expanded versions of MIS becomes, expert systems (ES), knowledge information systems (KIS) and enterprise resource planning (ERP), and data bases becomes distributed data bases (DDB), data mining (DM), and knowledge base (KB), and all these developments are reflected on the way systems analysis is carried out and new and more comprehensive tools for analysis are found.
Information alone is not sufficient to make predictions needed by manager and decision makers as they are facing the highly dynamic environment. Combination of information, experience and intuition leads to knowledge which has the potential to draw inferences and develop insights, based on our experience and thus it can assist in decision making and prediction. Knowledge theory (1962) concentrates on the content and meaning and how a person learns and gain understanding. It is applied in the new fields of human technology and persuading models targeting behavior change of clients and consumers.
It is the ability to use informed methods of processing knowledge and information bases from the temporal perspective of past, present and future events in a way that achieves the integration of knowledge generated by the different parts of the institution (Klinistra, 1988). And when we have wisdom (which the institution rarely reaches), we can, by linking the events of the past and the indicators and events of the present, extrapolate the indicators of future events. Thus, the use of advanced computer technology in building integrated knowledge bases with the development of complex models for extrapolation and prediction make us deal with todays events with the thought of tomorrow.

  • ML:Machine learning
  • ES: Expert systems
  • OIS:Office information systems
  • DSS:Decision support systems

Information Pyramid
System Analysis and Design:
System analysis and design are concerned with the investigation of an organization and the design and implementation of a computerized solution to that organization needs. To analyze a system is to identify its components (devices, people, rules and procedures) and their interrelationships in order to determine its objectives, requirements, and priorities. The analyst must find ways of representing organization as a whole system, taking into consideration any economic behavioral and technical constraints. To know more about systems analyst job from the internet click here. and visit the international institute of business analysis(IIBa).